First "Bone" of the Milky Way Identified
Researchers have identified the first "bone" of the Milky Way - a long tendril of dust and
gas that appears dark in this infrared image from the Spitzer Space Telescope. Running horizontally
along this image, the "bone" is more than 300 light-years long but only 1 or 2 light-years wide.
It contains about 100,000 suns' worth of material.
January 08, 2013
Long Beach, CA - Our Milky Way is a spiral galaxy - a pinwheel-shaped collection of stars, gas and dust.
It has a central bar and two major spiral arms that wrap around its disk. Since we view the Milky Way from the inside,
its exact structure is difficult to determine.
Astronomers have identified a new structure in the Milky Way: a long tendril of dust and gas that they are calling a "bone."
"This is the first time we've seen such a delicate piece of the galactic skeleton," says lead author Alyssa Goodman of the
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). Goodman presented the discovery today in a press conference at a meeting
of the American Astronomical Society in Long Beach, Calif.
Other spiral galaxies also display internal bones or endoskeletons. Observations, especially at infrared wavelengths of light,
have found long skinny features jutting between galaxies' spiral arms. These relatively straight structures are much less massive
than the curving spiral arms.
Computer simulations of galaxy formation show webs of filaments within spiral disks. It is very likely that the newly discovered
Milky Way feature is one of these "bone-like" filaments.
Goodman and her colleagues spotted the galactic bone while studying a dust cloud nicknamed "Nessie." The central part of the
"Nessie" bone was discovered in Spitzer Space Telescope data in 2010 by James Jackson (Boston University), who named it after
the Loch Ness Monster. Goodman's team noticed that Nessie appears at least twice, and possibly as much as eight times, longer
than Jackson's original claim.
Radio emissions from molecular gas show that the feature is not a chance projection of material on the sky, but instead a real
feature. Not only is "Nessie" in the galactic plane, but also it extends much longer than anyone anticipated. This slender bone
of the Milky Way is more than 300 light-years long but only 1 or 2 light-years wide. It contains about 100,000 suns' worth of
material, and now looks more like a cosmic snake.
"This bone is much more like a fibula - the long skinny bone in your leg - than it is like the tibia, or big thick leg bone,"
"It's possible that the 'Nessie' bone lies within a spiral arm, or that it is part of a web connecting bolder spiral features.
Our hope is that we and other astronomers will find more of these features, and use them to map the skeleton of the Milky Way
in 3-D," she adds.
For more information, visit http://milkywaybones.org.
Headquartered in Cambridge, Mass., the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) is a joint collaboration between the
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory. CfA scientists, organized into six research divisions,
study the origin, evolution and ultimate fate of the universe.
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